# CS Ramble — Set 2e - bit twiddling

This is post is part of set 2 of A Ramble Around CS.

In this post, we’re going to look at how to get, set, and otherwise manipulate individual bits.

Bit twiddling and bit bashing are often used interchangeably with bit manipulation, but sometimes exclusively refer to clever or non-obvious ways or uses of bit manipulation, or tedious or challenging low-level device control data manipulation tasks.

The term bit twiddling dates from early computing hardware, where computer operators would make adjustments by tweaking or twiddling computer controls. As computer programming languages evolved, programmers adopted the term to mean any handling of data that involved bit-level computation.

We often refer to clearing or setting all but a certain set of bits in a number as “masking“. This Stackoverflow answer gives a good visual explanation of where the term comes from.

Let’s say we want to check whether a number is even or odd. In decimal, since the base itself is even, nothing can make the number odd except the last digit, so we check whether the last digit is even (0, 2, 4, 6, 8) or odd (1, 3, 5, 7, 9).

In binary, again, the base (2) is even, so only the last digit can make a number odd. So we check whether the last digit is even (0) or odd (1). Well, that’s pretty simple!

So how do we check the last digit only? The answer is to throw away, or “mask out” all the other digits. In the last part, we showed that you can and, or, or xor whole numbers against each other at once, and it performs a bitwise and, or, or xor on corresponding pairs of bits. We can use that to clear out everything but the last bit:

#### Even example:

a 01010110
mask 00000001
a and mask 00000000

#### Odd example:

a 01010111
mask 00000001
a and mask 00000001

You can see that when anding a number with a mask, any digit that is 0 in the mask will be 0 in the result, and any digit that is 1 in the mask will be unchanged by the mask. So we can clear all the digits except the lowest (0ᵗʰ) by anding with 00000001, or just 1.

So by checking whether n&1 == 0, we can tell if n is even! In Ruby, that would look like this1:

# Ruby

def is_even(n)
return n&1 == 0
end

puts is_even 0    # true
puts is_even 1    # false
puts is_even 2    # true
puts is_even 3    # false
puts is_even 99   # false
puts is_even 100  # true


### Or-ing

As and can be used to clear bits or leave them alone, or can be used to set bits or leave them alone. For instance, to set the 5ᵗʰ bit from lowest (counting from 0, of course), we can or with 0b100000 == 32 == 1 << 5:

a 01001101
mask 00100000
a or mask 01101101

In fact, in ASCII, the uppercase and lowercase English letters are laid out so that they’re exactly the same, except for the 5th bit!

\$ python3
Python 3.9.10 (main, Jan 15 2022, 11:48:04)
>>> chr(0b01001101)
'M'
>>> chr(0b01001101 | 1<<5)
'm'
>>>


As you can see in this partial excerpt from the ASCII table, the uppercase and lowercase numbers differ by exactly 32 == 1<<5. Neat, huh?

64: @ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
80: P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [ ] ^ _
96:  a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o
112: p q r s t u v w x y z { | } ~ del

### Masking more than one bit at a time: hex digits

As you may recall from the “Why hexadecimal?” section of part b, hexadecimal is often used because it maps nicely to binary: one hex digit to four bits:

We can mask with 0b1111 to get just the low four bits, which is the same as masking with 0xF to get just the low hex digit. To get the high digit, we can shift right, then mask:

// Javascript

console.log(0xB9 & 0xF)
// 9
console.log((0xB9 >> 4) & 0xF)
// 11

console.log(((0xB9 >> 4) & 0xF).toString(16).toUpperCase())
// B


I think that’s enough for now, eh? Until next time!

1. Actually, many programming languages have a convention that 0 is false and anything else is true, so in Python, you could write this:

# Python

def is_even(n):
return not n&1

def is_odd(n):
return n&1


You could do more or less the same thing in C. In fact, n&1 is so terse and—once you get used to it—clear, that you’d seldom create an is_even or is_odd` function in any language. ↩︎